Review of the shortage occupation list – NFU responds

An image of a group of people harvesting sprouts.

The MAC (Migration Advisory Committee) has been asked to review the SOL (Shortage Occupation List). The NFU has submitted its response following a member survey which gathered responses from more than 500 members on eight different roles which farming businesses have struggled to fill.

The SOL identifies occupations where employers are struggling to recruit sufficiently from the domestic workforce and migration is considered an appropriate alternative. Inclusion on the SOL grants an occupation more favourable migration conditions, with the aim to increase the pool of applicants for a role and reduce labour shortages.

There are currently no agricultural roles included in the list.

The MAC has been asked to review the following aspects of the SOL:

  • Which occupations on the current SOL should continue to be included and which should be removed.
  • Which occupations, if any, based on the evidence provided by stakeholders should be added to the SOL.
  • Whether the salary requirement for shortage occupations should, in future, be whichever is the higher of the going rate or £20,480.

NFU survey results

The NFU has surveyed 506 members on their experiences with labour shortages as part of its response. 

Most worryingly, to minimise the impact of a shortage of labour on their business, 41.5% of respondents who are struggling to recruit and retain workers have reduced their production levels. This will be of great detriment to British food production.

You can read our deeper dive into the findings from our survey further down the page.

26 May 2023

NFU submits response

The NFU has submitted 8 occupations to be considered for the Shortage Occupation List:

  • Machine Operator (field)/Harvest Operator
  • Dairy Technician
  • Horticulture/Potato Supervisor with Language Skills
  • Egg Grader
  • Poultry Shed Cleaner
  • General Farm Worker
  • Hatchery Operative/Catcher
  • Machine Operator (Packhouse)

The roles we have identified in this submission are in shortage and are vital to the maintenance of production in the UK and growth opportunities for the wider agricultural and horticultural sectors.

Without an immigration solution, labour will continue to be a driving factor in the reduction of UK food, and a rise in imports from countries that often have lower worker welfare and environmental standards.

To support the NFU’s response, the NFU carried out a member survey between 28 April and 9 May 2023 to gather data on roles in shortage in farming and horticulture, which continue to be challenging to fill and for which immigration is a suitable response. The survey was open for nine days and gathered 506 responses from members employing workers.

The survey found that many businesses are holding vacancies and anticipate that these vacancy numbers will increase over time. As of May 2023, 56% of respondents (employers) had open vacancies on farm and 78% expect to have vacancies open over the next 12 months.

In an attempt to retain workers:

  • 90% of respondents have increased wages
  • 53% have increased flexibility on working patterns
  • 43% have offered accommodation

According to the survey results, employers within agriculture have seen wages increase by an average of 9%.

We spoke to a selection of farming businesses as part of our research:


A grower from the South West said: "The cost of employing people has gone through the roof. Since Brexit, the cost of the visa process and schemes has added huge costs to our business and it is challenging to pass them through the supply chain; we just have to learn to live with it."


Just under a quarter of respondents said that they were increasing automation on farm to minimise the impact of labour shortages on their business, but automation still has a long way to go before it can replace labour completely.

A berry grower in the Midlands told us: "I've looked at robotics for picking the strawberries, but a robot would only replace one worker. You would also still have to have a supervisor to look after it who would ultimately need paid more."

Another horticulture grower said: "If the ground is wet, then we definitely cannot use machinery as the ground cannot cope with the weight of the machines. Current automation is not as good as the human eye. A robot cannot see what is good produce and what is not whereas the human eye can.

"Automation does not fix the problem of labour shortages. Over the next five years we need people in the field without a shadow of a doubt."

The NFU expects to see an updated shortage occupation list in the New Year.

The Migration Advisory Committee has announced its intention to review the Seasonal Worker visa route during 2023.

NFU members can read our response in full at: NFU response – Call for Evidence on the Shortage Occupation List

26 May 2023

Consultation closes

This consultation has now closed.

12 April 2023

NFU to respond to the call for evidence

The NFU has launched a member questionnaire which will be used to provide evidence for our response to this review.

Roles in shortage have been identified for each sector and the questionnaire will collect data to support the inclusion of these roles on the SOL. 

The survey has now closed. Individuals and businesses can still respond to the consultation however on the government's consultation page.

The consultation will close on 26 May.

27 February 2023

Government launches consultation

The MAC has launched an inquiry into the Shortage Occupation list, seeking evidence from organisations on roles that are currently filled by migrant workers.

Read the consultation in full at: GOV.UK | Shortage Occupation List: call for evidence 2023

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  • 27 February 2023: The Migration Advisory Committee launches a call for evidence in response to its review of the Shortage Occupation List.
  • 28 April 2023: The NFU launches a member survey, seeking views from members to feed back into its overall response to the consultation.
  • 26 May 2023: NFU submits response including survey responses highlighting that more than 70% of members have had difficulty retaining workers in the last two years.